(1890 Land-Grant Institution) ** Introduction to Water Resources Management WRM2200-xGW, Term &

(1890 Land-Grant Institution)
**
Introduction to Water Resources Management
WRM2200-xGW, Term & Year
Title of (the assigned) Term Paper Topic
Student’s Full Name
Date (xx/xx/xxxx) of Submission (in PDF)
______________________________________________________________________________
Note: Need a 3,000-word paper (not including cover sheet/page, references, figures, and tables), on the assigned topic completed with the abstract.
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ABSTRACT (in 250-300 words that summarize your work)
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An example . . . “This paper is about the effects of pesticides on the groundwater and water in the economy. Pesticides are used for many different things and by just about everyone. I never really gave it much thought until being in this class as to what happens to, where does, or how the chemicals in the pesticides affect the area it is sprayed in or on. People always concern themselves with pollution in the air or the litter around the streets but not about how deep pesticides will it seep into the ground and what problems will occur.”
INTRODUCTION
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An example . . . “Pesticides are used to rid of and control weeds, insects, and other pest, increase food production and reduction of insect-borne diseases. These different pesticides can contaminate groundwater and more awareness is important because 50 percent of the economies drinking water comes from our earth’s groundwater. Streams were most vulnerable to contamination followed by agricultural and urban areas. People who live in agricultural areas have the most use of pesticides on their crops and approximately 95 percent of their drinking water comes from the groundwater in that area. Pesticides reach the water bearing aquifers below ground from pesticides being applied onto crop fields, seepage of contaminated surface water, accidental spills and leaks, improper disposals, and through the injection waste material into wells. Some pesticides have had a designated Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) but there are a lot that have not. Private water suppliers are not monitored or regulated by the act.”
ISSUES
[SIGNIFICANCE/CONCERNS/IMPACTS/CHALLENGES]
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An example . . . “Pesticides are mostly made of modern chemicals and they can pose a potential danger if they are consumed in large quantities. All of the pesticides are toxic but each one of them varies in its toxicity to humans and animals. Some attach to soil particles and are washed into waterways on sediment. Pesticides that are highly soluble in water can dissolve easier and these pesticides are most likely to move with water in surface runoff or to move through the soil in water than those pesticides that are less-soluble. Oil-soluble pesticides are attracted to clay particles and organic matter in the soil. The formulations of pesticides contain both “active” and “inert” ingredients. The active ingredients actually kill the pest and the inert ingredients aides the active ingredient to work more effectively. The solvents which are inert ingredients in most pesticides’ formulas may be toxic if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.”
DATA
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Your collection of data (including the tables, and figures/graphs) on the assigned topic, goes in here . . .
An example . . . “The first tsunami ever recorded took place off the coast of Syria, approximately over four thousand years ago when the island volcano of Krakatau, Indonesia, erupted in 1883, causing a tsunami that wiped away the English Channel such as England, France, and Germany.
There were several tsunamis that were very destructive in multiple ways in history, such
as changes in the ecosystem, economic issues, and pollution of the water and damages to homes and people. The top ten biggest tsunamis in history consist of,
1. Sumatra, Indonesia, December 26,2004.
2. North Pacific Coast, Japan, March 11, 2011.
3. Lisbon, Portugal, November 1, 1755.
4. Krakatau, Indonesia, August 27, 1883.
5. Enshunada Sea, Japan, September 20, 1498.
6. Nankaido, Japan, October 28, 1707.
7. Sanriku, Japan, June 15, 1896.
8. Northern Chile, August 13, 1868.
9. Ryuku Island, Japan, April 24, 1771.
10. Ise Bay, Japan, June 18,1586.
The Sumatra, Indonesia tsunami has a magnitude of 9.1. An earthquake off the coast of
Sumatra was estimated to have taken place at a depth of thirty kilometers. The tsunami alone was as tall as fifty meters . . .”
Include the relevant and selected figure(s) and table(s) for analysis/discussion, on the topic . . .
ANALYSIS/DISCUSSION
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Your data analysis mainly, your articulation, goes here that may include your additionally drawn figures/tables/math, etc.
An example analysis . . . “In 2017, here recently, natural disasters have costed the U.S economy three hundred and seven billion dollars. There were sixteen events that cost more than one billion dollars each. This includes heat waves, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods, droughts, and tsunamis. The U.S was already in debt of 20.6 trillion dollars, but the government has passed two funding bills appropriating thirty-four billion disaster funds. Last year, Congress approved to fund fifteen billion dollars to help rebuild and pay for damages from Hurricane Harvey and Irma. Then again, in February another thirty-six billion for funds to Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria. Natural disasters are becoming more frequent and more difficult and costly for the government to fix. This year, as of 2018, there were already eleven weather outburst that cost the government over one billion dollars so far.”
An example discussion based on your data . . . “Since pesticides were made to kill and the mode of action is not specified to attack a certain species, they most often kill or harm organisms other than the pest they were designed for, including humans and animals that get poisoned as a result of pesticides. The World Health Organization estimates pesticide poisoning cases to be 3 million each year and up to at least 220,000 deaths being primarily in developing countries. Even the lowest levels of exposure can have some type of effect on people. Younger children and older people are more vulnerable to harmful effects of pesticides. Children are at a greater risk because their bodies are smaller, and their bodies and organs are growing rapidly which makes them more susceptible. Exposure can cause many different ranges of neurological health effects like memory loss, loss of coordination, reduced speed of response to stimuli, reduced visual ability, altered or uncontrollable mood and general behavior, and reduced motor skills. Pesticide exposure has also been linked to cancer, hormone disruption, and problems with reproduction and fetal development. Health studies have been conducted on people that have drank contaminated water supplies but the studies have been limited.”
CONCLUSIONS (in 400-500 words)
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An example . . . “In conclusion there are about 50,000 different pesticide products that are used in the U.S. chat are made up of over 600 active ingredients. Even though the acute health effects of ingesting large amounts of a pesticide can be measured, the chronic effects of the long-term exposure to the low levels are much harder to explain. Many pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds are potent chemicals with potential health effects in people even at very low concentrations. The primary importance is to keep the pesticide contaminations out of our water supply by carefully managing the use of pesticides on farms, government screenings and pesticide regulations, the protection of groundwater recharge, and the use of farming methods that minimizes the damage done to the environment.”
REFERENCES
Follow the instructions provided on citation and listing of a reference(s).
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