Audience Analysis – PERSUASIVE SPEECH
Consider each dimension of the audience included in this assignment prior to writing your persuasive speech. Remember, audiences have a bias toward sustaining the status quo–because it’s easier to do nothing–unless they accept that a problem indeed exists. Your audience must be motivated to consider your recommendation, and they are more likely to do so if you create a common ground between yourself as a credible speaker and your audience. Thoughtful completion of this audience analysis will reveal aspects of your audience that surely will assist you in crafting more sophisticated arguments with your audience’s interests in mind.
Your Topic __________________________
Intended SPECIFIC Audience_____________________
What is their impact/relationship to the topic? In other words, do they have a stake in the issue? Are they influential in changing things (once they have been convinced)?
Critical Dimensions of the Audience
1. Attitude toward topic: Does your audience hold positive or negative attitudes toward your topic?
2. How strongly held are their attitudes?
Attitude Toward Relevant Behaviors and Message Purpose
1. What are the audience’s current behaviors regarding your topic? Please be specific.
2. What behaviors are you targeting to change?
Relevant Audience Beliefs
1. What audience beliefs do you think are open to change?
2. Ask yourself…what does my audience probably already know about this topic?
3. What do they think is true? What do they think is not true? Are you trying to change these definitions for them?
4. What important facts might your audience NOT know about the topic that could sway them towards your position?
Relevant Audience Values and Their Saliency
1. Identify your audience’s values on this topic.
2. Identify whether you assess these held values to be positive or negative.
3. How strong are your audience’s held values?
Relevant Audiences Needs and Motives
1. Identify WHY your audience may be moved to consider your persuasion (be specific, as this will help you figure out how to target ACES at them).
2. Explain why audience needs may be met better by your argument than the status quo, in other words give good reasons why your audience will be motivated to consider and/or adopt your recommendation(s).
Reference Groups for this audience – including but not limited to:
1. Self defined “memberships” – what particular groups does your audience belong to? (for instance: a political party, church/religion, generation, etc.)
2. How can you appeal to the unity of the audience as a group?
3. Assess who you believe to be admired sources. In other words, who are your audience’s opinion leaders? (Where does your audience get information about the world they trust to be true?)
Situational variables – including but not limited to:
1. Occasions (key dates, holidays, publicly known events, etc.) – what is going on in the outside world currently that affects or may relevantly attach to your topic? This can help you craft an intro or conclusion that is targeted at them
2. Expectations the audience has concerning source qualifications (your credibility). How are you building credible source research for your topic – information your audience WILL trust?
Citing Sources in Essays
Every source for your evidence must be in TWO places: 1) In the essay as a parenthetical citation
2) In a “Works Cited” list at the end of the essay
In the essay, you have two options for citing:
1. (Preferred method) Work the source into the sentence that provides your evidence. For example:
According to John Johnson, author of Best Book for Students, “Nine out of ten books are good for students” (62).
2. Add a parenthetical citation at the end of the evidence. For example: “Nine out of ten books are good for students” (Johnson 62).
Works Cited List
Here, you must give a full citation in MLA/APA (all my examples on this sheet are in MLA) for every secondary source you have listed above in your essay. The format for each item on the Works Cited list depends on what kind of source it is (a book, newspaper article, online article, etc.), so make sure you find the corresponding format for each separate source.
When you do your research, make sure to take down the author’s full name, the full title of the text, where it came from (which newspaper, magazine, website, database, etc.), the publication date, and other additional information (such as page number ranges, publishers, etc.)
The OWL at Purdue Website gives you a full list of citation formats for both MLA and APA. The following links will direct you to those websites, where the menu on the left side of the page will help you sort through the different kinds of sources. Remember that the format depends on what kind of source you have. Most likely, each source you have will need a different format.
APA: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/ref erence_list_basic_rules.html
**There are also things called “Citation Generators” online that will make a citation for you. If you want to use one of those, you can, but you should still check it against the OWL website, as sometimes the generators don’t do it correctly, and you will still be held accountable for it, regardless of if a machine did it or you did.**
Example Works Cited List
(Notice that items are listed alphabetically and entries that take up multiple lines uses hanging indents, which means that every line after the first one in indented)
“Athlete’s Foot – Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview.
Cobb, Michael. “Bitter Table for One.” Single: Arguments for the Uncoupled. New York: NYU Press, 2012. 1-39. Print.
Kristeva, Julia. “Approaching Abjection.” The Oxford Literary Review 5.2 (1982): 125-149. JSTOR. Web. 20 March 2014.
Krugman, Andrew. “Fear of Eating.” New York Times, late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1. Murakami, Haruki. The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle. Trans. Jay Rubin. New York: Vintage, 1998.
Suter, Rebecca. The Japanization of Modernity: Murakami Haruki between Japan and the United States. Cambridge: Harvard U Asia Center, 2008. Print.
Audience Analysis – PERSUASIVE SPEECH