Introduction Cloud technology refers to the delivery of on-demand computing services and

Introduction
Cloud technology refers to the delivery of on-demand computing services and this is from applications to storage to processing power. This is done on the internet as well as on a pay-as-you-go basis. In other words, this is a network-based environment focusing on sharing computations. The cloud computing networks have access to a shared group of configurable storage, servers, networks, applications as well as other computing resources. Over the recent years, cloud computing has experienced major developments. There has been an increase in connectivity due to the growing size, interrelations, and variety of data that has resulted in larger infrastructures being introduced. These larger infrastructures can allow dynamic load and access balancing. Companies have started developing and adopting the cloud. Strategies have been put in place to increase the uptake of cloud computing. The great development, as well as the adoption of cloud computing, has been increased by the emerging technologies enabling priced adoption and use of computing systems, mass storage, and infrastructures. Despite having several advantages, development in cloud computing has come with many challenges. There have been issues in trust issue that is between the providers and consumers, security implications, legal aspects, firms set as well as compliance needs [1][2][3]. Currently, the 2021 trend in cloud computing clearly defines that firms have continued using multi-cloud as well as hybrid cloud strategies that have been increased spend with users across the board. Today, people and institutions have ways of maintaining needs autonomously and this is from time and place. Nowadays the idea of speed and technological developments has been able to gain significant dimension. Cloud computing developments have been focused on services like transmission speed and data processing. The data processing and transfer aspect are largely dependent on cloud computing. With the significant growth of cloud computing many companies, continue to move their computing activities to clouds. This report will identify, contextualize and assess a significant development in my cloud computing in computer science, and this is a state-of-the-art report based on library research.
Figure 1 Cloud Computing
Background information
Cloud computing is the backbone of the data-driven application-based tech ecosystem that has been important to help in managing cloud development change. Every industry from, remote medicine, delivery services as well as working from home has been made possible through cloud computing. In years to come, people should expect to experience the change in accelerating for more businesses have started familiarizing themselves with the cloud models as well as delivery of data from cloud to personal devices which has become significant in people lives. Cloud computing is a developing paradigm, which has been able to be fixed, by developers as well as early access and understanding. In today’s world of business, cloud computing has shown rapid growth. The Cloud computing industry has been significant when it comes to growth worldwide. The rapid growth being experienced is vast and is projected to continue growing in the coming years. When people think of cloud technology, they will rarely look at the concepts before the 21 century. However, it is important to understand that cloud technology has been in existence for many many years and in fact, it can be traced to the 1950s during the mainframe-computing period. During those early days, mainframe computers were very big and expensive too and it was very hard to buy or even maintain one. Users used to share powerful mainframes by use of dummy terminals and used localized structures. This is the underlying premise of cloud computing and where it all started. During the mid-1960s, there were major advancements in cloud computing and this was when an American Computer scientist J.C.R. Licklider conceptualized an interconnected system of computers. In the year 1969, he helped in developing a very basic version of the internet called Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). This version became the first network allowing the digital source to be shared among computers that are not in the same location. This version allowed people from different parts of the world to access information from anywhere. This is the basic aspect of the internet that people enjoy using today. Several years later, there were further advancements in cloud technology. In the year 1972, a company known as IBM came up with operation systems, which was known as Virtual Machine (VM) operating system. Virtualization describes the virtual computer that will act like the real one when the OS is fully operational. These ideas evolved with the internet and this allowed the business to start offering virtual private networks as a service, which they could rent. This resulted in the creation of the new and modern cloud-computing infrastructure in the year 1990s. During this period, telecommunication firms started offering virtualized private networks. These Virtualized private networks had the same service quality as the dedicated point-to-point data connections which they received at a reduced cost. Instead of coming up with physical infrastructure to enable many users to enjoy their connections, the telecommunication firms would now be able to provide users with shared access to the same physical infrastructure.
During the 2000s Amazon came up with Amazon Web Service and later launched Elastic Compute Cloud in the year 2006 an this enabled companies as well as individuals to hire virtual computers and this allowed them to use their programs and applications. In the same period, Google came up with Google Docs services and this allowed its users to edit, transfer and save documents in the cloud. In the year 2007, Google, IBM, and a few universities had to join forces and came up with a server farm for research projects. The same year, Netflix launched its video stream services by using cloud stream movies and other video content into homes and millions of computers.
Cloud technology today
Cloud technology has experienced explosive growth in both consumer levels and enterprise levels. software developers such as Microsoft, Adobe, and Oracle have had a great impact and made a great effort to encourage users to utilize on-premise software that can be offered through pay as you go subscription basis. In addition, there has been a cornucopia of cloud providers like, Workday, Zen desk as well as ServiceNow, which have come up with Software as a Service (SaaS) that are only found in the cloud. Over the last 20 years, cloud computing has been evolving from being a simple technology to a necessity that runs through modern enterprises. Through this, many firms have become accustomed to the pay-as-you-go cloud-billing model.
Development of Cloud Computing Over the Last Decade
Cloud technology has been a transformative technology in the few years and has been able to change the way some organizations work. The majority of organizations consider cloud investments to be a top-three investment opportunity. For the past few years, cloud technology has been considered to be the largest change in technology and has been largely adopted by different users all over the world. Without looking at any specific industry, Cloud technology has been able to change the way people operate their businesses every day.
Cloud technology has been able to develop Resource utilization and efficiency for companies. Since gaining its momentum in the early and mid-2010s when firms began moving their workloads from their premises, this has transformed the way organizations operate today. Currently, there has been the introduction of serverless computing providers, which can outsource software code automatically and run on request and at scale. The containers allow workloads portability as well as have spawned micro services thus reducing the cost and improving resource utilization as well as efficiency. The cloud technology approach is becoming a popular technology in e-commerce as well as other specific business areas and this is because of the advantages like traffic cost reduction, scalability, enhanced productivity as well as substantial low equipment cost.
Giant companies have been born
By the year 2010, companies like Amazon Web Services, Google, and Microsoft had already launched cloud businesses. Open stack was also born during this time. This is the world-leading open-source cloud software platform.
Release on public AWS cloud formation
AWS Cloud formation was launched in 2011 and brought about the support that was based on a constant way of defining AWS cloud deployments to areas of all types and sizes. These companies came up with the main building blocks of infrastructure.
Introduction of serverless computing
A serverless model is a model, which has been largely executed in the cloud. Serverless computing was introduced in the year 2014 by AWS. Google and Microsoft also came later with their platforms. Despite the name, this serverless computing does not eliminate the need for servers but the software code is outsourced to cloud providers’ infrastructure. Here, the app is automatically run at scale based on the request. Cloud provider maintains the server as well as manages resources allocation to contract and bust resources as needed. The pricing here is based on the number of resources used rather than the pre-purchased units of capacity.
Microservices and Containers
Containers that enable developers to manage as well as Migrate Software code has increased their popularity. It is predicted that the container market is likely to grow from $749 million in 2016 to about $3.4 by the end of 2021. Either so many companies are using containers or investigating their developments and production (Container report, 2016). Its use has become the new norm for they allow workload portability. Containers have led to microservices, Hybrid, multi-cloud, and application migration, and modernization.
Cloud-native services
Another major development in the cloud technology of cloud-native services is arguably the most important cloud technology event so far with the rise of cloud-native services. Cloud-native services have offered instant access to companies. These services would have taken months for firms to develop on-premise.
Change in the telephony services
Cloud technology had been able to changes greatly particularly in telephony. Because of cloud computing, telecommunicating services have developed their mobility, services, and efficiency. Companies now make sure that customers have been well informed. VoIP has been able to make sure that calls are made wherever there is an internet connection. With the help of cloud technology services, a firm can change over time. Cloud technology helps to adjust data storage and data needs to as little or much as needed.
Future of cloud technology
A good percentage of organizations’ IT decision-makers have identified the public cloud to be the main type of cloud technology. However, as years go by, firms are likely to move mission-critical workloads to public clouds. This is because business executives would want to make sure that their firms can compete in the modern world of digital transformation. Business leaders continue to look forward to taking advantage of modernization in the internal computer systems, elasticity as well as empower significant business units.
Conclusion
In conclusion, Cloud technology has grown from the times of using dumb terminals and mainframes. It still has a long way to go from a lot of changes that are taking place in the Information technology world. organizations will have to work more to counter these challenges that have been increasing and not only remain competitive to the ever-changing cloud computing environment but also to stay on the right side of both the existing regulations and the new ones as they come up. The next stage of cloud technology seems to be just eventful as the last one. Cloud computing becomes an emerging technology that brings revolutionary changes in the way people use the internet. It is a combination of several computing technologies and plays a significant role when it comes to bringing improvement in communication and data transfer. This paper has been able to give a basic understanding of the development in cloud technology and has elaborated on the recent trends in cloud technology as well as possible changes in the near future. Cloud technology has changed the world. Despite much progress that has been made in cloud technology, a lot of research areas need to be explored.
Container report 2016. Cloud Foundry. (2019, May 13). https://www.cloudfoundry.org/container-report-2016/.