Introduction When evaluating specific institutions for the first time, university rankings might

Introduction
When evaluating specific institutions for the first time, university rankings might be useful. This provides a better picture of international universities in particular, as repute, reputation, and the teaching quality or research programs are difficult to judge from afar. Rankings provide the first hints. However, one should carefully examine the assessment criteria of the specific rating and not base your selection exclusively on the table.
The QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education (THE) are the internationally recognized platform for ranking learning institution. When establishing institutional success under the QS, six metrics are considered. These metrics are as follows: educational quality, alumni employment, faculty quality, alumni employment, and research performance, and proportion of foreign students [1]. Since 2010, 99 nations and over 1,600 institutions have been included in the list of the world’s top universities [2]. The top two university ratings in the globe are dominated by the United States and the United Kingdom. As per QS World University Ranking, Harvard University the best learning institution globally [2]. The ranking methods used vary enormously.
The differences relate to the definition of quality, its criteria and indicators, measurement methods and presentation format. The discrepancy result in very different ranking formulas, which also produce very different results. As such, as per Times Higher Education, UK’s the Oxford best University is the best learning institution [3]. The different raking system rely on matrix that assign a rank to each university. The higher the rank, the better the quality, and vice versa [4]. A definition of the quality of universities is laid down, and then its various aspects are measured using indicators. The overall score is obtained by weighting the result recorded on each indicator. Each aspect of quality, such as the impact of research or the quality of teaching is measured on specific criteria, such as the student-staff ratio [4]. In this case, these indicators receive the same weighting factor.
Methodology
The ranking used in this study will be based on information acquired from disciplines or departments rather than the whole universities; the evaluation will also be based on a multidisciplinary framework to a university’s quality, taking into consideration the educational quality, alumni employment, faculty quality, alumni employment, and research performance of the university. Additionally, the ranking that will be used for this case will give a different presentation, each of which will be the topic (educational quality, alumni employment, faculty quality, alumni employment, and research performance) of independent analyses, allowing the research to customize the rating based on the requirements of other consumer/future studies rather than depending on an aggregate score.
World Universities Ranking
The table below lists the top 20 institutions globally (see table 1). The ranking, considered the various aspects of the institutions, such as educational quality, alumni employment, faculty quality, alumni employment, and research performance. The selected data reviewed the universities’ rank from 2021 to 2015. The remarkable performance of the United States begins with first place where the prestigious Harvard grabbed the top spot for the eighth year in a row. Stanford University and University of Massachusetts competed for the second position.
world_rank
institution
country
National rank
Quality of education
Alumni employment
Quality of
faculty
publications
influence
citations
broad impact
patents
score
1
Harvard University
USA
1
7
9
1
1
1
1
5
100
2
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
USA
2
9
17
3
12
4
4
1
91.67
3
Stanford University
USA
3
17
11
5
4
2
2
15
89.5
4
University of Cambridge
United Kingdom
1
10
24
4
16
16
11
50
86.17
5
California Institute of Technology
USA
4
2
29
7
37
22
22
18
85.21
6
Princeton University
USA
5
8
14
2
53
33
26
101
82.5
7
University of Oxford
United Kingdom
2
13
28
9
15
13
19
26
82.34
8
Yale University
USA
6
14
31
12
14
6
15
66
79.14
9
Columbia University
USA
7
23
21
10
13
12
14
5
78.86
10
University of California, Berkeley
USA
8
16
52
6
6
5
3
16
78.55
11
University of Chicago
USA
9
15
26
8
34
20
28
101
73.82
12
Cornell University
USA
10
21
42
14
22
21
16
10
73.69
13
University of Pennsylvania
USA
11
31
16
24
9
10
8
9
73.64
14
University of Tokyo
Japan
1
32
19
31
8
19
23
3
69.49
15
Johns Hopkins University
USA
12
34
77
20
11
9
9
7
66.94
16
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
Switzerland
1
26
66
11
40
51
44
34
66.69
17
Kyoto University
Japan
2
42
38
19
25
36
43
23
65.76
18
Weizmann Institute of Science
Israel
1
4
101
22
101
67
101
29
65.09
19
University of California, Los Angeles
USA
13
62
59
23
3
11
6
13
64.05
Table 1
Source: https://www.kaggle.com/mylesoneill/world-university-rankings
Figure 1
University Rank In Terms of Quality of Education
In terms of quality of education (MEAN=275.100, STN.DEV. =121.93), University of California, Los Angeles and the University of California, San Diego were ranked the first and second in 2012 and 2013 respectively (see fig 2 & 3). However, in 2014 and 2015, The New York University was ranked as the best institution (see fig 4 & 5).
Quality Of Education
Mean
275.1004545
Standard Error
2.599665068
Median
355
Mode
355
Standard Deviation
121.9351
Sample Variance
14868.16862
Kurtosis
-0.631787612
Skewness
-1.000066639
Range
366
Minimum
1
Maximum
367
Sum
605221
Count
2200
Largest(2)
367
Smallest(2)
1
Confidence Level (95.0%)
5.09805593
Table 2: Descriptive Statistics-Quality of Education
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
University Ranking based on Patents, Broad Impact, Citation, Influence, Publication, Quality of Faculty, and Alumni Employment
Ten of the top twenty universities in the globe are American, with the other half coming from the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Japan. Since 2012 through 2015, the top three position has been reserved for the Harvard, Stanford, and MIT (see fig 1, fig 6, 7, 8 & 9). Oxford University, in 2013, surpassed MIT to earn third position, while the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom fell to fifth. In all, over 100 American colleges feature in the 2012-2015 list, accounted for more than 20% of the total institutions ranked.
As the number of colleges rated grows, so does the competition, making it more difficult to rank higher. The variety of the ratings in Europe and Asia is the most intriguing feature of these reports. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne universities ranking in Switzerland, for example, went from 83 to 93 in 2012 and 2013 respectively, and then sank to 91 in 2015 (see fig 1, fig 6, 7, 8 & 9). Similarly, Seoul National University in South Korea score increased from 75 in 2012 to 40 in 2013 then remained at 24 in 2014 and 2015 respectively (see fig 1, fig 6, 7, 8 & 9). The fast rise in Seoul National University’s ratings shows that there may be monitoring or data issues.
The Quality of Research and citation scores are relatively poor. The table’s average Quality of faculty score is 35.91, while the average research score is 60.95. The average of the quality of faculty scores, on the other hand, is 184.67 (see table 3). Given that these three factors account for 90% of the rating, it is apparent that citations have a significant impact on the performance of the universities that have been ranked so far.
Figure 6: 2012: University Ranking based on Patents, Broad Impact, Citation, Influence, Publication, Quality of Faculty, and Alumni Employment
Figure 7: 2013 University Ranking based on Patents, Broad Impact, Citation, Influence, Publication, Quality of Faculty, and Alumni Employment
Figure 8: 2014 University Ranking based on Patents, Broad Impact, Citation, Influence, Publication, Quality of Faculty, and Alumni Employment
Figure 9: 2015 University Ranking: Patents, Broad Impact, Citation, Influence, Publication, Quality of Faculty, and Alumni Employment
research
 
citations
 
quality_of_faculty
 
Mean
35.9102574
Mean
60.92163
Mean
184.6957
Standard Error
0.416600745
Standard Error
0.452242
Standard Error
1.290785
Median
30.5
Median
62.5
Median
210
Mode
30
Mode
99.9
Mode
210
Standard Deviation
21.25480509
Standard Deviation
23.07322
Standard Deviation
59.1512
Sample Variance
451.7667395
Sample Variance
532.3734
Sample Variance
3498.864
Kurtosis
0.461255269
Kurtosis
-0.62973
Kurtosis
1.889187
Skewness
1.022809317
Skewness
-0.31595
Skewness
-1.82649
Range
96.5
Range
98.8
Range
217
Minimum
2.9
Minimum
1.2
Minimum
1
Maximum
99.4
Maximum
100
Maximum
218
Sum
93474.4
Sum
158579
Sum
387861
Count
2603
Count
2603
Count
2100
Table 3: Descriptive Statistics of quality of research, quality of faculty, and citations score
Conclusion
Many students chose their institution solely on the basis of university rankings, hoping that this will provide them with greater employment chances. While some rankings compare whole institutions, others simply evaluate particular departments. The total ranking result is generally based on the weighting of the various variables. The specific variables utilized and how they are evaluated in relation to one another are not conventional and vary from rating to rating. In general, rankings that compare institutions as a whole are meaningless since the disparities in quality within a university’s departments might be substantial.
The evaluation of universities was based on a multidisciplinary framework to a university’s quality, taking into consideration the educational quality, alumni employment, faculty quality and research performance of the university. The ranking that will be used for this case will give a different presentation, each of which will focus on a different topic. In the United States, 15 universities made the top 20. For 4 year in a row, Harvard University rated top. With 1000 institutions in 2015, the United States was the most ranked country overall, followed by the United Kingdom as well as the most featured in the top 200. University is ranked first in quality of education, MIT University is first in research, and Harvard University is first in worldwide rankings. China has surpassed Canada to become the region with the highest number of institutions in the top 200. China, which has comparable numbers to the Netherlands. China’s Tsinghua University and Peking University featured among the top 100 Universities in the world. Oxford. The Middle East and North Africa area also improved significantly in the rankings. For the first time in history, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz University was ranked 995 among the top 1000 universities in 2015. Since 2012, 99 nations and over 1,600 institutions have been included in the list of the world’s top universities.
References
[1]”QS World University Rankings”, Top Universities, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/world-university-rankings/2022. [Accessed: 19- Mar- 2022].
[2]D. Ewalt, “The World’s Most Innovative Universities 2019”, Reuters, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.reuters.com/innovative-universities-2019. [Accessed: 19- Mar- 2022].
[3]”Times Higher Education”, TimesHigherEducation, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/. [Accessed: 19- Mar- 2022].
[4]R. Morse and E. Brooks, “A More Detailed Look at the Ranking Factors”, U.S.NEWS, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/ranking-criteria-and-weights. [Accessed: 21- Mar- 2022].