Page Virus pandemics are very real. This Time Magazine article (from 3

Page Virus pandemics are very real. This Time Magazine article (from 3 years ago! Wow — were the authors clairvoyant!) discusses how virus pandemics are created and spread. Read pages 3-7 to answer the questions below in short answer or bullet format. Page 8 is an editorial by Bill Gates discussing the U.S. Government’s role (or lack thereof) to control virus pandemics.
1. Which influenza strain has the greatest potential to create a pandemic and become a global threat? What does the author say could lead to the contagious nature and easy spread of the virus from human to human?
2. Name two reasons why pandemics are more easily spread in modern society.
3. Differentiate between an endemic, epidemic, and pandemic disease.
4. What are two shortfalls/disadvantages of developing viral vaccines?
5. Answer one of the following:
– What is one take home message you obtained from this article? OR
– What is one educational message or statement you want to let your future patients know about virus pandemics.
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/influenza/
Will send through email the article
17:10 / 56:49
Watch these videos and comment the questions below You tube for both.
WE HEARD THE BELLS: The Influenza of 1918 (DOCUMENTARY)
How WWI Changed America: The Influenza Epidemic
Individual Rights vs. Needs of SocietyThe rights of individuals are granted through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The bill of rights is as followed:• Freedom of religion, speech, the press, assembly, and petition• Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia• No quartering of soldiers• Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure• Right to due process of law, freedom for self-incrimination, and double jeopardy• Right of an accused persons, right to a speedy and public trial • Right of trial by jury in civil cases• Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments• Enumerated rights of the people, these are rights not explicit in law, like rights of privacy, presumption of innocence, or the right of travel. • Powers reserved to states, limits federal power. Gives states the right to make laws stricter than federal laws. Mores details on these items can be found at: https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights#amendmentxThe constitution nor the bill of rights explicitly mentions the word health. As such laws and policy on public health or health rights are often left up to the states to decide. Much of public health policy centers on risk. The type of risk determines how states balance individual rights versus the needs of society. Self-Imposed risk is the risk an individual knowingly and willingly takes on through their own behavior and actions. Such as choosing not to wear a seatbelt when riding in a car. While seatbelt laws are meant to protect the wearer, it could be seen as infringing on individual rights.Imposed risk refers to the risk to others that is out of their control. An example would be toxins from an industrial plant dumping into a community’s water supply. The pollution of a communities water supply, infringes on that communities right to clean water, and the pollution of their water supply is out of their control.
• Give two more examples of laws that center on self-imposed risk?• Give two more examples of laws that center on imposed risk?In some instances, the lines between self-imposed risk and imposed risk becomes blurred. This is the case with forced quarantine. In the United States, Mary Mallon (Typhoid Mary) was the first instance of forced quarantine. Quarantined for over 23 years for spreading salmonella to her clients. She was not the last. In the 1800’s Tuberculosis Sanatoriums were built to house those with TB, often against their will. Especially those who were well enough to continue activities of their daily life, but could still spread the disease. As drug resistant strains of TB emerged in the early 2000’s the use of forced quarantine became an issue again. California was forced to implement quarantine measures in a population of individuals who were non compliant in medication therapy and did not adhere to public health recommendations. The supreme court stated that forced quarantine could only be used if involuntary detention is the least restrictive alternative for prevention of imposed risk. This means that all other options and methods have been exhausted. This led to the emergence of Direct Observed Therapy (DOT). DOT is a department of state health program that uses healthcare workers to visually watch TB patients take their medication on a daily basis. These workers are also responsible for ensuring patients attend healthcare appointments, and motivating them to stay compliant.
• How does DOT maintain individual rights?• Should states be responsible for implementation and support of DOT services? Should this be federal? Or who should be responsible? And why?In 2014, forced quarantine came into the news and courts once again. A nurse was returning to her home in New Jersey following a mission trip to Africa. Kaci Hickox was coming into customs at the airport and when asked about her visit was subject to a health assessment, since Africa was currently facing an Ebola outbreak. Kaci showed on assessment that she had a fever of 101 and symptoms of possible Ebola. As a result, Kaci was detained and isolated in a New Jersey hospital for one week until her blood tests came back negative for Ebola and the state was sure she had not been exposed. Ebola can take up to three weeks to develop after exposure. During the week-long confinement, Kaci was not able to have contact with anyone.
• What possible liberties from the Bill of Rights do you think may have been violated by the State of New Jersey?• What do you believe could have been done differently based on the “least restrictive” requirement? Kaci Kickox sued the state of New Jersey, stating that they had not proven through clear and convincing evidence that isolation was needed to protect the public. The court sided with Kaci, and awarded her $250,000 in damages. Damages were for loss of work, loss of liberties (not allowed due process) and loss of privacy due to her name being publicly distributed in health department press releases. As a result four main standards were set forth for public agencies in regard to forced quarantine:• Entity must show and provide evidence it is a public health necessity• Must be an effective intervention with a connection between means and an end• The intervention is not too broad nor too narrow • The quarantine is the least restrictive measure, while accomplishing its purpose
7.) Under what conditions, do you think it would ever be possible to implement forced quarantine and meet all four standards as set forth by the supreme court?
1. What were factors that lead to the rapid spread of the disease? List at least two.
2. What kinds of efforts were made by local or national officials to slow the spread of the illness?
3. In your opinion, what efforts should have been made to slow down the spread of this pandemic?
How will these strategies be implemented?
What are potential drawbacks?
How can recommendations balance individual rights and the public welfare?
3. What individuals were most affected by this pandemic? Why?
4. What kinds of home remedies were used to treat the flu? Do you think these are particularly effective? Why or why not?