[**Please do not use outside sources for this assignment. The use of

[**Please do not use outside sources for this assignment. The use of outside sources will result in a zero on the assignment.**]
William Blake’s The Songs of Innocence and Experience
Read the background for William Blake’s The Songs of Innocence and Experience and the poems assigned to you.
***If your last name, according to Canvas, begins with A – J, then analyze “The Echoing Green” and “The School Boy” according to the questions provided next to the poems.
***If your last name, according to Canvas, begins with K – Z, then analyze “The Lamb” and “The Tyger” according to the questions provided next to the poems).
Then, write a 500 word response to the poems based on the questions next to the poem.
William Blake wrote The Songs of Innocence and Experience in 1789 towards the beginning of what is now called the Romantic Period. The subtitle is “Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul”. They are a series of 45 poems (songs) that he engraved into copper plates with artwork. Some plates took months to complete and others took years. As you read, imagine the scene being described is appearing in front of you. You probably will not understand the context or some of the particulars, but the universal ideas that Blake presents are still present in our lives today. Do not try to understand these ideas intricately and completely; instead, read the poems a few times, accept the ambiguity, and then, try to understand the emotions, memories, and ideas that Blake is attempting to address.  Also, keep the subtitle and this painstaking process in mind. Why would a man devote his life to such a work?
innocence (noun)1. The state, quality, or virtue of being innocent, as: a. Freedom from sin, moral wrong, or guilt through lack of knowledge of evil. b. Guiltlessness of a specific legal crime or offense. c. Freedom from guile, cunning, or deceit; simplicity or artlessness. d. Lack of worldliness or sophistication; naiveté. e. Lack of knowledge or understanding; ignorance. f. Freedom from harmfulness; inoffensiveness.
experience (noun)1. The apprehension of an object, a thought, or an emotion through the senses or mind.2. a. Active participation in events or activities, leading to the accumulation of knowledge or skill: a lesson taught by experience. b. The knowledge or skill so derived.
Read the following selections from William Blake’s Blake Songs of Innocence and Experience: 
(From the Songs of Innocence)Introduction
The Echoing GreenThe Lamb
(From the Songs of Experience)The TigerThe Schoolboy
William Blake 1757 – 1827
Life: Born into a family of humble origin in 1757.
Trained as an engraver, he practiced this craft until he died.
Was deeply aware of the great political and social issues of his age.
A political freethinker, he supported the French Revolution and remained a radical throughout his life.
Contemporary of the American War of Independence and the French Revolution supported abolition of slavery and egalitarian principles
He was a Christian, though much different than modern Christianity. The most important literary influence in his life was the Bible.
He claimed he had prophetic visions.
Poetic Technique: Used symbols as part of a deliberate attempt to avoid any kind of realism it is the ‘real’ world that prevents man from perceiving the greater Reality that lies behind him.
Connected visual arts and writing, creating ‘illuminated printing’, a combination of picture and poetic text. He considered the two aspects as a counterpart of each other.
Blake the Prophet: Blake wrote some prophetic books (The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Visions of the Daughters of Albion, America and Europe).
These books express Blake’s own personal Romantic and revolutionary beliefs.
They were published as printed sheets from engraved plates containing prose, poetry and illustrations. The plates were then coloured by Blake himself.
Blake’s Imagination: Blake considered imagination as the means that man can know the world.
He did not believe in man’s rationality. For him the representatives of a rationalistic and materialistic philosophy were great heretics, since they denied the value of faith and intuition.
For him, faith and intuition were the only source of true knowledge and he denied sensory experience.
The internal mind really builds the external world that man sees.
Songs of Innocence and Experience: Songs of Innocence is written in the pastoral mode with simple imagery. It deals with childhood as the symbol of innocence.
Songs of Experience is more complex and pessimistic. The poems pair those of Songs of Innocence.
The world of innocence = joy and happiness, while the world of experience = cruelty and injustice.
The child becomes the object of Blake’s poetry because he is closer than the adult to the original state of harmony with nature.
Blake uses complex symbolism.
However, his language and syntax are simple. He often adopts an apparently naive style, using a plain, Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, as well as repetitions, refrains and regular stress patterns which are typical of ballads and children’s songs and hymns
To him a lamb or a tiger, a chimney sweeper or a London street were visions; they were never to be taken at their face value.
Child: innocence
Father: experience
Christ: higher innocence
Romanticism Basics:
1. Begins with the French Revolution (1789), starts in France / England The World
2. Confronts Neo-Classicism-opposition to reason, hierarchy, institutions (School, Church, Monarchy).
3. Changes the way they viewed nature Beautiful (Edenic) and Sublime (Awe inspiring power)
4. Main Figures: Blake, Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Coleridge (Mary Wollstencraft, Dorothy Wordsworth, Mary Shelley, John Clare)
5. Focused on: Freedom, Equality, Imagination, Individuality, Emotion, Intuition, Spirit
6. Poetry from God Man / Nature Man
1. Imagination, Emotions, Intuition. Exaltation of intense feelings. Descartes: I think, therefore I am. vs. Rousseau: I felt before I thought.
2. Subjectivity; the cult of the individual; the absolute uniqueness of every individual.
3. Freedom of thought and expression
4. Idealization of Nature
5. Embracing uncivilized, wild, pre-civilized. Rousseau: “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” In other words, civilization is the cause of our corruption.
Neo-Classicism vs. Romanticism
The French Revolution
A period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that mostly lasted from 1789 until 1799. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies. It became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. Some of its central documents, like the Declaration of the Rights of Man, expanded the arena of human rights to include women and slaves, leading to movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century.
The Songs of Innocence and Experience
by William Blake
Introduction (Innocence)
Piping down the valleys wild,
Piping songs of pleasant glee,
On a cloud I saw a child,
And he laughing said to me:
‘‘Pipe a song about a Lamb!’’
So I piped with merry cheer.
‘‘Piper, pipe that song again;’’
So I piped: he wept to hear.
‘‘Drop thy pipe, thy happy pipe;
Sing thy songs of happy cheer:!’’
So I sang the same again,
While he wept with joy to hear.
‘‘Piper, sit thee down and write
In a book, that all may read.’’
So he vanish’d from my sight;
And I pluck’d a hollow reed,
And I made a rural pen,
And I stain’d the water clear,
And I wrote my happy songs
Every child may joy to hear.
1. Reader Response: What emotions does the poem evoke? What from the poem does this?
2. Imagery (the five senses): List two uses of imagery in the poem. Why do you think Blake uses them?
3. Symbols: Locate two nouns in the poem (person, place, or thing). Google the noun and “literary symbol”. What does it say? Why do you think Blake used these symbols?
4. Interpretation: What universal ideas (themes) are addressed? (Justice, Mercy, Peace, Transition, etc.) What does it say about them?
5. Interpretation: What do you think Blake is trying to say about innocence and experience in this poem? What makes you think this?
The Ecchoing Green
The sun does arise,
And make happy the skies.
The merry bells ring
To welcome the Spring.
The sky-lark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around,
To the bells’ cheerful sound. 
While our sports shall be seen
On the Ecchoing Green.
 
Old John, with white hair 
Does laugh away care,
Sitting under the oak,
Among the old folk, 
They laugh at our play, 
And soon they all say.
‘Such, such were the joys. 
When we all girls & boys, 
In our youth-time were seen, 
On the Ecchoing Green.’
 
Till the little ones weary
No more can be merry
The sun does descend,
And our sports have an end: 
Round the laps of their mothers, 
Many sisters and brothers,
Like birds in their nest,
Are ready for rest;
And sport no more seen,
On the darkening Green.
1. Reader Response: What emotions does the poem evoke? What from the poem does this?
2. Imagery (the five senses): List two uses of imagery in the poem. Why do you think Blake uses them?
3. Symbols: Locate two nouns in the poem (person, place, or thing). Google the noun and “literary symbol”. What does it say? Why do you think Blake used these symbols?
4. Interpretation: What universal ideas (themes) are addressed? (Justice, Mercy, Peace, Transition, etc.) What does it say about them?
5. Interpretation: What do you think Blake is trying to say about innocence and experience in this poem? What makes you think this?
The Lamb
Little Lamb who made thee
Dost thou know who made thee
Gave thee life & bid thee feed.
By the stream & o’er the mead;
Gave thee clothing of delight,
Softest clothing wooly bright;
Gave thee such a tender voice,
Making all the vales rejoice!
Little Lamb who made thee
Dost thou know who made thee
Little Lamb I’ll tell thee,
Little Lamb I’ll tell thee!
He is called by thy name,
For he calls himself a Lamb:
He is meek & he is mild,
He became a little child:
I a child & thou a lamb,
We are called by his name.
Little Lamb God bless thee.
Little Lamb God bless thee.
1. Reader Response: What emotions does the poem evoke? What from the poem does this?
2. Imagery (the five senses): List two uses of imagery in the poem. Why do you think Blake uses them?
3. Symbols: Locate two nouns in the poem (person, place, or thing). Google the noun and “literary symbol”. What does it say? Why do you think Blake used these symbols?
4. Interpretation: What universal ideas (themes) are addressed? (Justice, Mercy, Peace, Transition, etc.) What does it say about them?
5. Interpretation: What do you think Blake is trying to say about innocence and experience in this poem? What makes you think this? What is the purpose of the repetition?
The Tyger
Tyger Tyger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;
What immortal hand or eye,
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
In what distant deeps or skies.
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand, dare seize the fire?
And what shoulder, & what art,
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand? & what dread feet?
What the hammer? what the chain,
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp,
Dare its deadly terrors clasp!
When the stars threw down their spears
And water’d heaven with their tears:
Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?
Tyger Tyger burning bright,
In the forests of the night:
What immortal hand or eye,
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?
1. Reader Response: What emotions does the poem evoke? What from the poem does this?
2. Imagery (the five senses): List two uses of imagery in the poem. Why do you think Blake uses them?
3. Symbols: Locate two nouns in the poem (person, place, or thing). Google the noun and “literary symbol”. What does it say? Why do you think Blake used these symbols?
4. Interpretation: What universal ideas (themes) are addressed? (Justice, Mercy, Peace, Transition, etc.) What does it say about them?
5. Interpretation: What do you think Blake is trying to say about innocence and experience in this poem? What makes you think this? What is the purpose of all of the questions?
The Schoolboy
I love to rise in a summer morn,
When the birds sing on every tree;
The distant huntsman winds his horn,
And the sky-lark sings with me.
O! what sweet company.
But to go to school in a summer morn,
O! it drives all joy away;
Under a cruel eye outworn.
The little ones spend the day,
In sighing and dismay.
Ah! then at times I drooping sit,
And spend many an anxious hour,
Nor in my book can I take delight,
Nor sit in learnings bower,
Worn thro’ with the dreary shower.
How can the bird that is born for joy,
Sit in a cage and sing.
How can a child when fears annoy.
But droop his tender wing.
And forget his youthful spring.
O! father & mother. if buds are nip’d,
And blossoms blown away,
And if the tender plants are strip’d
Of their joy in the springing day,
By sorrow and care’s dismay.
How shall the summer arise in joy.
Or the summer fruits appear.
Or how shall we gather what griefs destroy
Or bless the mellowing year.
When the blasts of winter appear.
1. Reader Response: What emotions does the poem evoke? What from the poem does this?
2. Imagery (the five senses): List two uses of imagery in the poem. Why do you think Blake uses them?
3. Symbols: Locate two nouns in the poem (person, place, or thing). Google the noun and “literary symbol”. What does it say? Why do you think Blake used these symbols?
4. Interpretation: What universal ideas (themes) are addressed? (Justice, Mercy, Peace, Transition, etc.) What does it say about them?
5. Interpretation: What do you think Blake is trying to say about innocence and experience in this poem? What makes you think this?