Running head: RAPE/SEXUAL ABUSE ON CAMPUS: LITERATURE REVIEW 1 3 RAPE/SEXUAL ABUSE

Running head: RAPE/SEXUAL ABUSE ON CAMPUS: LITERATURE REVIEW
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RAPE/SEXUAL ABUSE ON CAMPUS: LITERATURE REVIEW
Rape/sexual Abuse on Campus: Literature Review
Rape and sexual assault are serious issues on college premises. According to the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) (2021), 13% of women experience rape or attempted rape while in college. This is a startling statistic, and it is significant to understand what these numbers mean and how they can be addressed. Fortunately, many colleges have begun implementing programs to help prevent sexual assault and support victims, but more work needs to be done. The paper will review the literature on the different types of assaults that occur, their frequency, the effects of these assaults on victims, and how colleges can improve their prevention efforts.
Types of Sexual Abuse that Occur in Campus
Sexual abuse takes various forms. The different types of sexual abuse that occur on campuses are unwanted sexual contact, sexual violence, and harassment, incorporating rape and attempted rape (McMahon et al., 2018, p. 20). According to Hynes (2011), unwanted sexual contact refers to touching sexual body parts to cause distress and pain. In general, this can be kissing, caressing, grabbing, or squeezing the private parts. Sexual violence and harassments refer to any non-consensual sexual contact that does not involve physical force and penetration but includes sex while someone is incapacitated due to drugs and alcohol; it relates to coercing or forcing penetration. Rape, on the other hand, is defined as forced sexual intercourse of any kind (Hynes, 2011). Additionally, when they occur within the college or campus context, these acts of sexual abuse are collectively known as campus sexual assault (CSA) (McMahon et al., 2018). CSA has proved to be a serious issue in campuses because of rising cases in recent years.
Frequency
Many college students have varying sexual assault incident that they encountered in their schooling period.  According to the American Association for Universities (AAU), 11.7% of students and 23% of female students had non-consensual sex while in school (as cited in McMahon et al., 2018, p. 3). The conclusion was made from a study of 27 campuses (McMahon et al., 2018, p. 3). On the other hand, a campus climate validation survey performed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) at nine university sites found that 20.5% of female were sexually assaulted while in premises of the school (as cited in McMahon et al., 2018, p. 3). RAINN (2021) estimates 13% of women experience rape or attempted rape while in college. Thompson et al. (2013) are one of the few studies that have explored the incidence of sexual aggression on campuses showing that 30% of college men engaged in it at least once over the reference periods (McMahon et al., 2018, p. 8). These prevalence statistics indicate that CSA is a serious issue that should be addressed urgently.
Impact on the Victim
Campus sexual assault can have a devastating effect on victims. The trauma of the experience often stays with them for years, if not their entire life. Victims may struggle to trust people, suffer from PTSD or other mental health issues, and have difficulty completing their education (Peter-Hagene and Ullman, 2016). According to the US Department of Justice (DOJ), sexual assault victims frequently experience physical and mental trauma that can last for years and affect practically every aspect of their life. According to our new campus environment study, 19% of victims of rape skipped or contemplated dropping classes, 7% relocated, 31% reported that their academic outcomes deteriorated, and 22% discussed taking a break from school or leaving school altogether (US DOJ, 2016). Addressing the issue is more urgent because it can destroy the victim’s life.
What are Schools are Doing?
Although CSA is a serious issue, we note that universities and colleges have worked hard to address the problem and enhance their sexual violence and harassment prevention efforts. The initiatives they do range from organizing awareness campaign programs, implementing required student education programs to train students on how to intervene when another act violently towards another person, and creating campus climate surveys to be aware of their students’ opinions about sexual violence (McMahon et al., 2018). Schools are also required to provide services for victims, including personal resources, disciplinary action for perpetrators, and more (McMahon et al., 2018). Hopefully, these efforts will help address the issue in the long term.
Conclusion
Campus sexual assault is a problem with severe implications for victims, their lives, and their education. Unfortunately, the statistics show that the problem has reached an alarming level which means it should be taken more seriously and addressed urgently. Schools are doing this by creating new initiatives to address this problem so students can be safe and feel safe on campuses.
References
 
Abuse and Incest National Network [RAINN]. (2021). Campus Sexual Violence: Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/statistics/campus-sexual-violence
Hynes, L. E. (2011). Sexual abuse : types, signs and treatments. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers.
McMahon, S., Wood, L., Cusano, J., and Macri, L. M. (2018). Campus sexual assault: Future directions for research. Sexual Abuse, 31(3), 270-295. https://doi.org/10.1177/1079063217750864
Peter-Hagene, L. C., and Ullman, S. E. (2016). Longitudinal effects of sexual assault victims’ drinking and self-blame on posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(1), 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516636394
Thompson, M. P., Swartout, K. M., and Koss, M. P. (2013). Trajectories and predictors of sexually aggressive behaviors during emerging adulthood. Psychology of Violence, 3(3), 247-259. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030624
U.S. Department of Justice. (2017). Understanding the Threat of Sexual Violence on College Campuses. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/opa/blog/understanding-threat-sexual-violence-college-campuses