Surname 4 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Title Due Date

Surname 4
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Title
Due Date
Annotated Bibliography
Mayone Stycos, J. (1965). Opinions of Latin-American Intellectuals on Population Problems and Birth Control. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 360(1), 11-26.
Mayone’s articles identified factors affecting the population, family and population control in Latin America. Her other source was extracted from Latin America Intellectuals who reasoned that power and wealth were influenced by population. Its control was likely to happen after individuals learned and changed their negative attitudes towards the birth control methods. He analyzed ways that could motivate citizens in adopting birth control, including; emphasizing education. Educating children is costly; therefore, parents reduce the number of children to educate them or employ gapping, giving parents enough time to educate each. This results in a low fertility rate and low population growth. The author concluded that; factors associated with changing attitudes of birth control are economically based and include; rural to urban migration, monetary assistance from low fertile and developed countries, economic planning within the country, and technical assistance from supporting organizations. He concluded that his results had the potential to decrease the fertility rate in Latin America, reducing population growth in return. Utilizing this source in my research paper will be helpful and facilitate an in-depth understanding of how birth control affects the population.
Tyrer L. Introduction of the pill and its impact. Contraception. 1999 Jan;59(1 Suppl):11S-16S. doi: 10.1016/s0010-7824(98)00131-0. PMID: 10342090.
This source focus on the pill as a method of birth control in the United States. It is authored by L Tyrer, analyzing the benefits of birth control as a contraceptive and mode of medication. According to Statista estimation, more than 80% of women have used this method during their production phases. The pills have effects on social and economic contexts. In a social environment, this birth control method affects the health of fertility trend of women, the family roles that they play, their inter and intrapersonal relationships with other individuals in the work context and outside work, and impacts the present feminist issues. Oral contraceptives. They consist of two hormones, progestin and estrogen, commonly used in the US to prevent pregnancy. Since pregnancy and childbirth are associated with morbidity and mortality risks, oral contraceptives affect the population by establishing a constant average number of individuals in the US. Despite the function of preventing pregnancy, oral pills are used or other non-contraceptives health benefits. The medications reduce the risk of contracting ovarian cancer and prevent pelvic inflammatory disease in women. The author concludes that the role of birth control in US women, reduce the mortality rate associated with childbearing and non-contraceptive function, enhance the quality of life by improving good health. This article aligns with my topic making it essential.
Kim Eckart. How birth control girls’ education can slow population growth. https://www.washington.edu/news/2020/09/08/how-birth-control-girls-education-can-slow-population-growth/
Liu and Raftery conducted research in which they used surveys regarding how education on birth control could affect the population, the heart of this source. Studying the UN released data since 2013, they were able to extract that; the world’s population is likely to project up to 10.9 billion during the 2100s. This increase is expected to emerge from the less developed and developing countries associated with high fertility. Governments have therefore been asked to examine the effects that may arise from the projection of that population. A higher probability is that an increased population will cause economic problems that will affect sectors, including health and education. However, birth control education would play a crucial role in ensuring that the population remains controllable to the country. Contrasting a high-fertility Region, such as Asia, with a low-fertility region, showed that high-fertility countries face economic downfalls and problems.
A survey conducted on 1200 women from random centres around the US showed two categories of women; those enrolled in contraceptive use and those with unmet need, which described the percentage of the women willing to adopt a birth control method but have not yet. After the study, they concluded that only contraceptive prevalence had the capability of reducing population growth. The unmet need was potentially willing to delay or stop childbearing, but they still found themselves getting pregnant and had a 17% of the respondents. The main argument presented was that if parents adopted a culture of educating their children to the highest level, they would likely attain professional opportunities. Girls are likely to avoid bearing children to remain in that position for a while. This source offers factual information concerning how birth control affects the population in conjunction with my research topic.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine. Contraception and Reproduction: Health Consequences for Women and Children in the Developing World. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK235069/
This webpage is authored by National Research Council (US) Committee on Population. It shows the impacts that birth control poses to the existing population by highlighting the benefits and risks of birth control. Gathering information regarding the benefits and dangers helps the individuals make a sound decision on the best method, including chemical, surgical, and barrier. Barrier methods are ineffective on birth control but prevent individuals from acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. All the discussed methods impact the population to reduce increase by preventing women of childbearing age from getting pregnant. This information was based in the United States and was reviewed by Report Review Committee before publishing. The conclusion drawn here implies that the non-contraceptives function of these birth control methods, preventing diseases and treating some existing illness, reducing the morbidity rate, and thus, plays a role in ensuring a stable average population is retained. This webpage provides insights concerning my research topic, making it relevant.
Population Control. 2010. https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=PmTTtjmYzUI
This source is uploaded on YouTube, and it analyzes the present birth control methods and how, if adopted, they could help manage the population of people worldwide. It was posted on 3rd June 2003 and analyzes different types of birth control. Its composition was based on research papers that discussed birth control, mainly focusing on women. This source discusses barrier, chemical, and surgical methods of birth control. This birth control method results in a decrease in the number of babies born in a country, resulting in a reduction in population growth.
Barrier methods are associated with employing physical devices, including the diaphragm, condoms, and cervical caps. All the devices play the role of preventing the sperms from reaching the vagina during copulation. The intrauterine contraceptive device falls in this barrier method but differs from the rest as it allows the sperms to get the female’s genital tract but prevents implantation. Chemical processes employ the use of oral pills, which contain hormones estrogen and progesterone, which alter the menstrual cycle, thereby preventing ovulation. The other surgical contraceptives methods include vasectomy, which involves cutting or blocking tubes responsible for carrying sperms to the semen from the testicles, and tubectomy carried out by removing one or both fallopian tubes in the female reproductive system. The claim made in this video is that, by adopting these methods, the number of children annually will decrease, and population growth will decline gradually. The results provided by this YouTube source document aligns with my research topic of how birth control affects the human population.
Goodman, L. A. (1961). Some possible effects of birth control on the human sex ratio. 
Annals of Human Genetics, 25(1), 75-81.
In this article, Goodman, L. A presented the problems associated with birth control and are likely to affect the sex ratio in a given population. Based on scientific statistics, he developed formulas to modify the sex ratio and effects of birth control methods. In empirical research, he presented an overall impact experienced resulting in the birth control and sex ratio. He showed results through a simple formula indicating the population of married couples that prefer male offspring, their preferences for female offspring, and how the choices of married couples affect their decisions on whether to have another child or not. His idea turned positive, with 71% of 215 interviewed couples agreeing with his argument.
He concluded that; if a couple’s preference is to bear a male child, their effectiveness to bear that child will depend on their decision to take the risk of bearing another child. However, the child is not guaranteed to be a male offspring, but with attempts, the couple will end up with the baby, either a female or their proffered male and otherwise. Family size is a variable in his formula. It may discourage a large family from taking the risk of bearing another child and is likely to employ a birth control method. This article proves to be useful in my research paper as it gives details of how birth control methods influence the population.
Works Cited
Goodman, L. A. (1961). Some possible effects of birth control on the human sex ratio. Annals of Human Genetics, 25(1), 75-81.
Kim Eckart. How birth control girls’ education can slow population growth. https://www.washington.edu/news/2020/09/08/how-birth-control-girls-education-can-slow-population-growth/
Mayone Stycos, J. (1965). Opinions of Latin-American intellectuals on population problems and birth control. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 360(1), 11-26.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine. Contraception and Reproduction: Health Consequences for Women and Children in the Developing World. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK235069/
Population Control. 2010. https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=PmTTtjmYzUI
Tyrer L. Introduction of the pill and its impact. Contraception. 1999 Jan;59(1 Suppl):11S-16S. doi: 10.1016/s0010-7824(98)00131-0. PMID: 10342090